Stem cells are cells with the prospective to produce into numerous diverse sorts of cells in the entire body
There are three identified accessible sources of autologous grownup stem cells in humans: bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just following birth. Of all stem cell therapy varieties, autologous harvesting requires the least risk.
Adult stem cells are frequently used in a variety of health care therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell varieties with traits constant with cells of a variety of tissues such as muscle tissue or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells created via somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for long term therapies. Analysis into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
Stem cells are cells with the likely to develop into several different varieties of cells in the body. They serve as a repair program for the body. There are two major varieties of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and grownup stem cells.
Stem cells are different from other cells in the body in three ways:
- They can divide and renew themselves above a lengthy time
- They are unspecialized, so they cannot do distinct functions in the body
- They have the likely to turn out to be specialized cells, such as muscle cells, blood cells, and brain cells
Medical professionals and scientists are excited about stem cells because they could aid in several different regions of health and health care investigation. Learning stem cells could aid clarify how severe problems such as birth defects and cancer come about. Stem cells could one day be used to make cells and tissues for therapy of several ailments. Examples contain Parkinson’s condition, Alzheimer’s condition, spinal cord injury, heart condition, diabetes, and arthritis.
How can stem cells treat condition?
When most individuals believe about about stem cells treating condition they believe of a stem cell transplant.
In a stem cell transplant, embryonic stem cells are initial specialized into the necessary grownup cell variety. Then, those mature cells replace tissue that is damaged by condition or injury. This variety of treatment method could be used to:
- replace neurons damaged by spinal cord injury, stroke, Alzheimer’s condition, Parkinson’s condition or other neurological troubles
- produce insulin that could treat individuals with diabetes and heart muscle cells that could repair harm following a heart attack or
- replace practically any tissue or organ that is injured or diseased.
But embryonic stem cell-based mostly therapies can do significantly more.
- Learning how stem cells develop into heart muscle cells could supply clues about how we could induce heart muscle to repair itself following a heart attack.
- The cells could be used to research condition, identify new medication, or screen medication for toxic side results.
Any of these would have a significant affect on human health without having transplanting a single cell.
In theory, there is no limit to the varieties of ailments that could be handled with stem cell investigation. Provided that researchers could be in a position to research all cell varieties by way of embryonic stem cells, they have the likely to make breakthroughs in any condition.
CIRM has developed condition pages for several of the main ailments becoming targeted by stem cell scientists. You can find those condition pages here.
You can also sort our total record of CIRM awards to see what we have funded in different condition regions.